Whilst the UK tends to follow a model of sports specialisation and performance-focused athlete environments (Johnston, Harwood & Minniti, 2013), youth development sports programmes can lead to positive development of young people and promote healthy, satisfying and productive lifestyles (Hamilton, Hamilton & Pittman, 2004). They have been found to improve youth quality of life and simultaneously enhance development of personal and social skills that prepare youth for adulthood (Fraser-Thomas, Cote & Deakin, 2005).
Self-esteem is linked closely to an adolescent’s perception of competence. They gain this through comparison against their peers and by being evaluated by their peers (Horn & Weiss, 1991). In the sports context, youth athletes determine their ability against peers on their own team, as well as against the opposing team (Ewing, Gano-Overway, Branta & Seefeldt, 2002).
During the ages of ten to 24, adolescents are developing cognitive