It is also responsible for a large share of urban air pollution as well as noise nuisance. Furthermore, transport has a serious impact on the landscape because it divides natural areas into small patches with serious consequences for animals and plants.
At the same time, transport is an essential element of our modern society: it ensures access to jobs, goods and services, education, leisure and tourism activities. Modern two-income households are even more dependent on transport because it is increasingly common that at least one person must commute a significant distance. This is partly a result of the increasing specialisation of labour. Furthermore, tasks such as shopping increasingly rely on transport because of the tendency for shopping areas to be concentrated in fewer places, away from residential areas, which are often devoid of shopping facilities.
Transport volumes are growing: 1.9% annually for passenger and 2.7% for freight transport. This growth is outpacing the
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