Child abuse and neglect occur in different situations, for a range of reasons. Children rarely experience one form of abuse at a time. Recent research by McGill University (2015) showed that emotional abuse of a child may be as harmful as physical abuse and neglect, while child sexual abuse often occurs together with other forms of maltreatment.
Emotional abuse or maltreatment, also known as psychological abuse or maltreatment is the most common form of child abuse. It is also experienced by children witnessing domestic violence. While many parents are emotionally abusive without being violent or sexually abusive, emotional abuse often accompanies physical and sexual abuse. It includes acts of omission (what is not done), e.g. emotional neglect, not expressing or showing love and affection, and commission (what is done), e.g. rejection, humiliation, insults, setting unreasonable expectations or restricting opportunities for the child to